*Saint Francis school of Rome*

## MIDDLE SCHOOL

Students build on their elementary experience as they prepare for high school. Classes become more specialized, and emphasis is placed on organization, study skills, and research techniques. The curriculum prepares children for British and American high schools.

The educational program offered is “whole child” centered, so that as well as high academic expectations, emphasis is also placed on the arts.

## Art

As the students progress through middle school they revisit each of the strands of art to which they were introduced in elementary:

- drawing
- painting
- sculpture
- ceramics
- mixedmedia
- graphicdesign
- crafts
- textiles
- photography

Middle school gives the students an opportunity to hone and advance these skills. Themes around which the students produce art can be more complex as they begin to understand that art has many functions for the artist and the viewer. It can take on one or many functions be they- emotional, social, political, aesthetic, historical.

Each year begins with drawing as a base unit, and culminates in the school ‘Artfest’ which is held at the International Picnic.

## Art History

The Middle School art history program gives students a deepening understanding of art and culture, it cultivates a broader mind and an ability to look at both art and the world in more than one way. The periods covered are as follows:

### GRADE 6

- Paleolithic
- Neolithic
- Egyptian
- Greek
- Roman
- Byzantine

### GRADE 7

- RomanesqueArchitecture
- GothicArchitecture
- Renaissance
- Baroque
- Rococò

### GRADE 8

- Neoclassical
- Romantic
- Realism
- Impressionism
- Post-Impressionism
- ModernArt:
- Dada
- Expressionism
- Surrealism
- Abstraction
- Pop
- Abstract Expressionism
- Modern Sculpture
- Post- Modern period

## Literacy curriculum

### KINDERGARTEN

- Oral and written language becomes a vital part of the school day in kindergarten
- The child will increase the complexity of their spoken language
- A beginning understanding of the conventions of language is a part of the kindergarten experience
- The child will continue to make the transition from oral literacy to written literacy, developing their concepts about print, during the kindergarten year
- Children begin to develop some sight words
- The child also begins to recognise sentences, and is introduced to the idea that those sentences begin with capital letters and end with some type of punctuation
- The child will develop the understanding that writing is used for a variety of reasons
- Students develop the ability to sustain their attention for an age-appropriate length of time

### GRADE 1

- Students who enter first grade continue phonological development, making major growth in learning to read
- They develop more advanced phonics skills and begin to build a bank of sight words
- They read, listen to, and discuss more complex stories, and begin to make connections with their own experiences
- They are able to begin to self-correct their reading
- The students make major developments in their writing, learning to write a story that shows more focus and organization
- The conventions of language gain importance to first graders as they begin to desire neatness and correctness
- They begin to learn the rules of language and spelling
- First graders show evidence of expanding their language repertoire, including increasing the appropriate use of more formal language
- First graders are learning to read and write both for information and pleasure

### GRADE 2

- Second graders begin a transition from learning to read to reading to learn
- They begin to read more fluently. Having a firmer grasp on phonics, second graders begin more complex word studies
- They begin to read longer, more complex texts in a variety of genres
- They continue to read every day and have books read to them
- Writing becomes more independent, and they develop more conscientious skills about editing and revising their work
- Conventions become part of the every day writing experience as they develop their understanding of the parts of speech
- Second graders expand sentences and learn new sentence structures and the punctuations that occurs with them
- Their written and spoken vocabulary becomes much more complex, including the use of a variety of language registers
- They engage in a variety of language and literary activities as they gain independence and mastery of reading, writing, speaking and listening

### GRADE 3

- Third graders are able to read much more widely on a variety of topics with more complex texts
- They enjoy a variety of genres, including fiction, non-fiction and poetry
- They further develop their skills to read aloud with ever-increasing fluency and comprehension
- Third grade students read more thoughtfully, discover more details and extract deeper meaning in what they read
- They are able to work more independently on research projects, producing more meaningful writing
- With guidance, they use all steps of the writing process in their own compositions and reports
- They are becoming more adept in identifying the main points from fiction and non-fiction texts, and are introduced to more abstract skills of synthesis and evaluation in writing
- By the end of third grade, they are aware of the importance of correct spelling and the conventions of language
- Third graders respond more logically to questions with increased vocabulary and wider range of language structures
- They are aware of different registers of language, and are able to vary language patterns in both speaking and writing

### GRADE 4

- In the fourth grade, students expand and deepen their knowledge of reading, writing, and speaking, as well as their understanding of the connections among different types of communication
- Fourth grade students read and comprehend texts from a variety of genres (fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and drama), and they can understand and learn from texts without having a teacher preview the material for them
- Students also read and understand informational texts from other subject areas in addition to language arts
- Students are ready for opportunities to discuss books and to expand their vocabularies for deeper comprehension of texts
- They understand and articulate how authors use a variety of techniques and craft in their writing, and they show evidence of the author’s craft in their own writing
- Students participate in a cooperative learning environment, and they move independently around the room to gain information from other students
- Fourth graders are also ready for more complex assignments that ask them to use sources to inform their oral and written discussions of topics

### GRADE 5

- In the fifth grade, students expand and deepen the concepts, skills, and strategies learned in earlier grades
- Fifth grade students are able to read and comprehend texts from a variety of genres and subject areas
- They begin to study subjects in a more formal way, and show evidence of making more connections as they encounter new ideas
- Students write every day for a variety of purposes and audiences, and in order to maximise and formalise their writing skills
- Students communicate their personal voices by expressing ideas in their writing
- They are able to understand and articulate how authors use a variety of techniques and show evidence of the author’s craft in their own writing
- Fifth graders continue to increase their vocabulary knowledge through reading, word study, discussion, and content area study
- In verbal interactions, students communicate effectively with different audiences about a variety of texts and concepts
- Students work cooperatively in a variety of situations, assuming productive roles within each group
- Fifth graders also complete more complex assignments using sources to inform their oral and written discussions
- Students are able to understand a problem or conflict as stated in oral, visual, or written texts, and they can determine an appropriate solution
- In this process, students utilise previous knowledge and experience, draw conclusions and/or make valid generalisations, and apply logic to develop possible solutions
- Fifth grade students support solutions with a variety of evidence and reasons

## Literature curriculum

English literature is rich and influential, reflecting the experiences of people from many different countries and ages.

In Grades 6 to 8, pupils are encouraged to develop the skills to become enthusiastic and crit- ical readers of stories, poems and drama, as well as non-fiction and media texts. They gain a sense of English literary heritage (spanning a millennium) and engage with many important texts from it.

They also learn to appreciate and interpret the choices made by writers and speakers, and are thereby equipped to make creative and appropriate choices about how to communicate suc- cessfully themselves.

### GRADE 6

In Grade 6, pupils will begin to develop the skills that they need to improve their performance iIn Grade 6, pupils begin to develop important skills which will enable them to engage with and explore a variety ideas and texts, understanding and responding to the main issues.

In Grade 6 pupils will:

- understand plot, setting, character and theme
- explore different forms of fiction (biographies, short stories, poetry etc)
- explore literary devices (imagery, figurative language, symbolism, irony, metaphor)
- learn to respond critically to literature
- understand how character affects plot and understand characters’ motives and conflicts
- make predictions and inferences about what they read
- recognise and evaluate evidence from texts
- compare and contrast stories
- understand and evaluate vocabulary choices in literature: multiple meanings, synonyms and antonyms, connotations, context clues etc.

### GRADE 7

In Grade 7 pupils consolidate and further develop important critical thinking skills and a deeper understanding of the features of a wide variety of text types. They will gain experience of differ- ent genres of fiction and a selection of non-fiction texts.

In Grade 7 pupils will:

- understand features of a variety of genres e.g. horror, science fiction, myths
- analyze structure of story plots and themes and retell events effectively
- understand suspense and how atmosphere is created
- understand unfamiliar vocabulary through context clues
- understand and analyze themes and recurring themes in stories and poems (from ancient to modern)
- explore cause and effect in narratives
- understand the effects of poetic devices, mood and suspense in narratives
- analyze the writer’s purpose and trace an argument
- distinguish fact from opinion
- explore Shakespeare’s theatre and language
- analyze selected narratives in poetry and prose (pre 1914 and post 1914)
- adapt texts to different media and compare different media (narrative, playscript, film)
- explore features and purpose of myths, folk tales and traditional stories and their importance in English literary heritage
- understand how texts reflect cultures and how themes are described in different cultures
- understand how bias may be used to influence the reader
- develop their own personal responses to the writer’s argument

### GRADE 8

In Grade 8 pupils further develop and practice critical thinking and reading skills. They are able to infer and deduce meaning, recognise and discuss different interpretations of texts, justifying their views with evidence, in preparation for high school literature courses.

In Grade 8 pupils will:

- understand more complex plots, conflict, sub-plot and story motifs
- understand the development of the English language from 1100 to the present day (Old English to Modern English) and the diffusion of English worldwide
- explore selected texts and important writers and poets from 19th and 20th century
- explore the form and style of Shakespeare’s sonnets
- understand the development of English language and literature during the Renaissance
- analyze how the writer creates a sense of mystery, tension or humour in the text
- continue to explore contemporary themes in fiction and nonfiction texts
- understand and use poetic terminology and understand vocabulary in context
- understand the main idea in nonfiction report writing
- use emotive vocabulary or imagery to create strong impression on the reader
- analyze literary devices and style in prose and nonfiction
- consider how writers use irony, allusion and symbolism, and how humour is created
- understand bias in texts and in the narrator’s point of view
- analyse language, vocabulary, rhetorical devices, imagery/ images, layout and choice ofinformation given in speeches, news articles, biased recounts and advertising texts.

## English curriculum

### GRADE 6

In Grade 6, pupils will begin to develop the skills that they need to improve their performance in English and enable them to achieve their full potential at this level and beyond.

Pupils will experience a wide variety of writing in English, both fiction ( such as narratives, descriptions, poetry, drama texts) and non-fiction (such as explanations, recounts, informative texts and reports). They will investigate and explore how texts are written and then be encour- aged to produce writing of their own, developing important language and writing skills. They will also continue to develop and expand their knowledge of grammatical structures, vocabu- lary and spelling in English.

Grade 6 students will:

- plan and structure stories and narratives
- experiment with different styles of writing and use a range of sentences for variety
- explore narrative devices, e.g. creating suspense and foreshadowing
- investigate how to describe characters in different ways, using examples from literature
- explore how setting creates mood/atmosphere
- choose interesting vocabulary and appropriate detail in description
- structure sentences, paragraphs and punctuate sentences effectively
- identify and use different grammatical forms
- use a thesaurus to select adjectives, synonyms and antonyms.
- understand how information can be organized and how to present information clearly, coherantly and accurately.
- understand how to match writing to the needs of audience and purpose e.g. to inform, to persuade, to report
- analyze and write poetry using poetic devices: figurative language, imagery, alliteration, form etc
- organize a written response to a poem: outline of main idea, themes, poetic techniques and their effects

In addition, pupils will be given ample opportunity to speak in a variety of situations, both for- mal and informal, using language that is suitable for their audience and purpose.

### GRADE 7

In Grade 7, pupils will continue to develop important English skills of increasing complexity. They will increase their understanding of how language affects their world, and how they can use language to affect others.

Pupils will explore an increasing variety of different writing texts, both fiction and non-fiction, and explore the literary devices which make them particularly effective for readers and audi- ences. Pupils will continue to gain a deeper understanding of grammatical structures, improve their vocabulary and expand their knowledge of spelling strategies.

In Grade 7 students will:

- read and structure their own narratives in a variety of lengths and way, choosing interesting vocabulary for effect
- analyze and understand character and narrative viewpoint
- analyze and write vivid descriptions of places using language that suits the purpose
- compare descriptions for fact and opinion
- understand meanings of unfamiliar words and phrases from context clues.
- analyze how nonfiction articles use language to influence and persuade
- plan and structure their opinions in writing and compare and contrast two opposing sides of an argument
- use advanced punctuation (commas, semicolons, colons etc.)
- write a response to literature and explain reasons for opinions
- organize ideas to produce a cohesive text
- write poetry using a variety of poetic devices
- compare two poems by comparing/contrasting themes, language, forms etc.
- provide evidence from texts to support ideas (quotations).
- organize ideas to produce cohesive texts and use effective linking words
- analyze how information can be organized and presented to readers
- understand how information can be biased and influence the reader e.g. to persuade and create sympathy

In addition, pupils will be encouraged to speak in a variety of situations, gaining a deeper un- derstanding of the importance of levels of formality and appropriate word choices.

## Science curriculum

### GRADE 5

The objective of the grade 5 science course is to promote independent study skills through

the completion of daily responsibilities in the class and out. Students will learn to familiarize with the scientific method; learn to take class notes; learn to keep neat, complete, and accu- rate records of lessons; develop detailed scientific illustrations and observations as a means to experimental data collection. Written assignments will be central to the investigative part of the course. Testing will evaluate their assimilation of course concepts.

Grade 5 Science Topics:

- Laboratory safety and course requirements
- Water on Earth: water cycle, oceans, fresh water sources; cloud formations.
- Weather Patterns: air pressure vs. altitude; atmosphere’s layers; convection currents; air masses; severe weather; forecasts; weather and climate.
- Protecting Earth’s Resources: renewable and non-renewable resources; different forms of renewable and non-renewable energy.
- Classifying Organisms: what classification is; from Kingdom to species; vertebrates and invertebrates; classes of vertebrates; arthropods.
- Insects: characteristics of the group; body parts; life cycle; adaptations (camouflage and defense strategies).
- Energy, Sound and Electricity: forms of energy (such as sound waves, electromagnetic, thermal, potential, kinetic); conductors and insulators; flow of energy in a system; how energy is transformed.

### GRADE 6

The objective of the grade 6 science course is to advance independent study skills through the completion of daily responsibilities in the class and out. Students will learn more detailed steps of the scientific method; neat, complete and well organized class notes will be a requirement; students will be encouraged to develop detailed scientific illustrations and observations as a means to experimental data collection. Written assignments will be central to the investigative part of the course. Testing will evaluate their assimilation of course concepts.

Grade 6 Science Topics:

- Laboratory safety and course requirements
- Introduction to the scientific method: making a detailed observation PHYSICAL SCIENCE
- Classifying matter: matter and the elements
- Changes in matter: Physicals changes; mixtures; solutions; chemical changes
- Changes of state: solids, liquids, gases EARTH SCIENCE
- Soil: formation, composition, organisms
- Water: the water cycle; water as a resource; saving water.
- Atmosphere: definition, layers; composition; ozone layer; altitude, pressure, density LIFE SCIENCE
- Characteristics of Living Things: Kingdoms, Linnaeus and the binomial System of Classifi- cation, plant classification, herbarium

### GRADE 7

The objective of the grade 7 science course is to advance independent study skills through the completion of daily responsibilities in the class and out.

Students will learn to implement the steps of the scientific method through term laboratory re- ports and a yearly experimental science fair presentation; planning experiments and learning to collect data appropriately will be central to the investigative part of the course. Math skills will be integrated in the processing of experimental data. Neat, complete and well organized class notes will be a requirement.

Students will be encouraged to develop scientific curiosity and independent critical thinking as they analyze information and do research. Written assignments will be central to the investiga- tive part of the course; in particular, extensive research finalized to developing original discus- sion components will be required. Testing will evaluate their assimilation of course concepts.

Grade 7 Science Topics:

- Laboratory safety and course requirements
- Introduction to the scientific method: observations and inferences EARTH SCIENCE
- Structure of the Earth: Earth’s layers; Earth’s interior; independent observations.
- Time and Change: origin of geological time.
- Plate Tectonics: Continental drift; Theory of Tectonic Plates
- Earthquakes: crustal stresses; faults; locating an epicenter; earthquake safety
- Volcanoes: structures; types; formation; monitoring; Italy and its geological formations LIFE SCIENCE – THE HUMAN BODY
- Use of a microscope: components; how to handle; scientific illustration of a cell structure
- Body organization and cells
- Bones, muscles, skin
- Nutrition (extensive unit)
- Digestivesystem
- Circulatorysystem
- Brief introduction to respiratory, excretory, nervous, reproductive and endocrine systems

### GRADE 8

The objective of the grade 8 science course is to consolidate independent study skills through the completion of daily responsibilities in the class and out. Students will continue to use the steps of the scientific method through term laboratory reports and a yearly experimental sci- ence fair presentation; planning experiments and learning to collect data appropriately will be central to the investigative part of the course. Math skills will be integrated in the processing

of experimental data. Neat, complete and well organized class notes will be a requirement. Students will be encouraged to develop scientific curiosity and independent critical thinking

as they analyze information and do attentive research. Focus on reliability of resources and paraphrasing will be fundamental to acceptable research material in order to develop original discussion material that has been carefully thought through. Testing will evaluate their assimila- tion of course concepts.

Grade 8 Science Topics:

- Laboratory safety and course requirements
- Introduction to the scientific method: qualitative and quantitative observations; faulty rea- soning; cause and effect; analyze information; reliable resources; application of scientific method vocabulary.

**CHEMISTRY**

- Introduction to matter: describing matter; measuring matter; changes in matter; matter and energy.
- Elements of the Periodic Table: Introduction to the atom; organizing the elements; metals; non-metals; metalloids; elements from stardust.
- Chemical interactions: atoms and bonding; ionic, covalent, metallic bonds.
- Chemical reactions: observing chemical change; describing chemical reactions.

**PHYSICS**

- Motion: define; units; speed; velocity; slow motion; graphing motion
- Forces: balanced and unbalanced; Newton’s 3 laws of motion; law of universal gravitation; momentum; law of conservation of momentum
- Pressure: fluids, aerodynamics, Bernoulli’s Principle, Pascal’s Principle

**ASTRONOMY**

- Introduction to the universe: its formation; ancient civilizations; units; how our understand- ing of the universe has evolved over time (Aristotle, Ptolemy, Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, Newton)
- Earth and the Moon: Earth’s shape; Moon; Earth-Moon system.
- The Solar System: Sun, Planets, Asteroids, Meteoroids, Comets
- Stars and Galaxies: Telescopes; Characteristics of stars; star life cycle; galaxies
- Space Exploration: history and future discoveries

## Math curriculum

### GRADE 5

**Number Sense and Numeration
**By the end of Grade 5, students will:

- Represent, compare, and order whole numbers and decimal numbers from 0.01 to 1 000 000 000
- Read and print in words whole numbers to one billion
- Round decimal numbers to the nearest tenth, in problems
- Represent, compare, and order fractional amounts with like denominators, including proper and improper fractions and mixed numbers
- Demonstrate and explain the concept of equivalent fractions
- Read and write money amounts to $1 000 000
- Solve problems with whole numbers up to 1 000 000
- Count forward by hundredths from any decimal number expressed to two decimal places
- Solve problems involving the addition, subtraction, and multiplication of whole numbers, using a variety of mental strategies
- Add and subtract decimal numbers to thousandths, including money amounts
- Multiply three-digit whole numbers by three-digit whole numbers
- Divide three-digit whole numbers by two digit whole numbers
- Multiply decimal numbers by 10, 100, 1000 and divide by 10,100, and 1000, using mental strategies
- Use estimation when solving problems to help judge the reasonableness of a solution
- Determine and explain, through investigation using concrete materials, drawings, and calculators, the relationship between fractions and their equivalent decimal forms

**Measurement
**By the end of Grade 5, students will:

- Estimate, measure and represent time intervals and elapsed time to the nearest second
- Measure and record temperatures
- Estimate and measure the perimeter and area of regular and irregular polygons, using a variety of tools and strategies
- Select and justify the most appropriate standard unit to measure length, height, width, and distance, and to measure the perimeter of various polygons
- Solve problems requiring conversion from metres to centimetres and from kilometres to metres
- Solve problems involving the relationship between a 12 hr. clock and a 24 hour clock
- Solve problems requiring the estimation and calculation of perimeters and areas of rectangles
- Determine, through investigation, the relationship between capacity and volume
- Select and justify the most appropriate standard unit to measure mass

**Geometry and Spatial Sense**

By the end of Grade 5, students will:

- Distinguish among polygons, regular polygons, and other two-dimensional shapes
- Distinguish among prisms, pyramids, and other three-dimensional figures
- Identify and classify acute, right, obtuse and straight angles
- Measure and construct angles up to 180 degrees, using a protractor
- Identify triangles and classify them according to angle and side properties
- Use and compare grid systems commonly used on maps
- Create and analyse designs by translating and/or reflecting a shape, or shapes

**Patterning and Algebra**

By the end of Grade 5, students will:

- Make a table of values for a pattern that is generated by adding or subtracting a number to get the next term, or by multiplying or dividing by a constant to get the next term, given either the sequence, or the pattern rule in words
- Demonstrate, through investigation, an understanding of variables as unknown quantities represented by a letter or other symbol

**Data Management and Probability**

By the end of Grade 5, students will:

- Collect and organise discrete or continuous primary data and secondary data and display the data in charts, tables, and graphs that have appropriate titles, labels, and scales that suit the range and distribution of the dataDemonstrate an understanding of ‘sample groups’ to represent sets of data
- Read, interpret, and draw conclusions from primary data and from secondary data, presented in charts, tables, and graphs
- Compare similarities and differences between two sets of data, using a variety of strategies ( i.e., mean, median, and mode, by describing the shape of a data set across its range of values)
- Pose and solve simple probability problems, and solve them by conducting probability experiments and selecting appropriate methods of recording the results

### GRADE 6

The objective of the grade 6 math course is to consolidate basic computational skills learned in elementary school, focusing on the development of problem solving strategies. Learning to understand questions formulated in English and being able to plan strategies for solving exer- cises will be a fundamental skill required during the course. Throughout the year students will be introduced to algebraic concepts in preparation for the upcoming pre-algebra course.

Grade 6 Math Topics:

- Whole numbers and decimals: place value; comparing and ordering; estimation by rounding and compatible numbers; expressions; problem solving; operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.
- Representing data: frequency tables, line plots; uses of tables for problem solving; mean, median, mode, range, outlier; spreadsheets, bar and line graphs; misleading graphs.
- Patterns and variables: evaluating variable expressions; mental math in estimation; one step equations; distributive property.
- Number Theory and Fractions: divisibility rules; expressions with exponents; factoring and prime factorization; GCF; equivalent fractions; estimating fractions; fractions in simplest form; mixed numbers and improper fractions; LCM; comparing and ordering fractions; writ- ing fractions as decimals.
- Fraction Operations: estimating sums and differences with mixed numbers and fractions; addition and subtraction (all kinds of fractions); multiplication and division (all kinds of frac- tions); solving fraction equations.
- Ratio, Proportions and Percents: define; compare in real world situations; unit rates; pro- portions; circle graphs and percents.
- Geometry concepts: points, lines, rays, angles, angle measures, constructing angles; trian- gles, identifying triangles; polygons, classifying quadrilaterals; problem solving using logical reasoning; congruent and similar figures; symmetry, tessellations, units of measurement; perimeters and areas; the circle; 3-D figures; surface areas, volume.

### GRADE 7

The objective of the grade 7 math course is to introduce algebra concepts in preparation for the Algebra 1 course in grade 8. Students will be required to have a very solid foundation of basic computational skills. Knowledge of basic operations and fractions concepts are a re- quirement to the course, as are an understanding of the order of operations, simple numerical and variable expressions and equations. Graphing skills will be developed, although students should already be familiar with them and the precision requirements needed to work neatly with a pencil and straight edge. Accuracy and good organizational skills are needed to suc- cessfully complete the course.

Grade 7 Math Topics:

- Statistical data: interpretation and construction of bar graphs, stacked bar graphs, sliding bar graphs, line graphs and multiple line graphs; recognizing misleading graph; selecting appropriate scale; frequency and histograms; measures of central tendency; stem and leaf plots; range; scatter plots; choosing an appropriate graph within an survey.
- Integers and Variable Expressions: absolute value; compare and order integers; variable expressions; order of operations; add, subtract, multiply and divide integers; numerical and variable expressions using exponents; exponents in multiplication and division; Scientific Notation.
- Equations and Inequalities: simplify variable expressions; combining like-terms and then simplifying; solve equations by subtraction; solve equations by addition; solve equations by multiplication and division; solve two-step equations; solve equations with variable on both sides; write and graph inequalities; solve inequalities by adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing.
- Graphing in the Coordinate Plane: identify key terms; solution to a linear equation; slope; slope-intercept form; equation for a line; Venn diagrams to solve problems, intercepts to graph an equation; work with two equations; the coordinate plane for geometric transla- tions, reflections and symmetry.
- Rational and Irrational Numbers: identify prime and composite numbers; GCF; rational numbers in simplest form; fractions as decimals; repeating decimals as fractions; LCM; compare and order rational numbers; add, subtract, multiply and divide fractions and mixed numbers; square roots.
- Applications of Proportions and Percents: ratios and unit rates; measurement; proportions; fractions and decimals as percents and vice-versa; using compatible numbers; parts of a whole.

### GRADE 8: ALGEBRA 1

The objective of the grade 8 Algebra 1 course is to consolidate concepts introduced in the grade 7 pre-algebra course and to prepare the students for the challenging requirements that many high schools expect in grade 9. Students will learn to think critically and analytically as they master the algebraic techniques needed in many standardized tests they will encounter in the future. They will learn to apply skills to real world situations and will gain a greater under- standing of algebraic concepts needed for their future high school math work.

Grade 8 Algebra 1 Topics:

- Variables, Function Patterns, and Graphs: model relationships with variable and equations; simplify and evaluate expressions and formulas following the order of operations; classify and compare numbers; function rule; quantities in a function; scatter plots; mean, median, mode, range; stem and leaf plot.
- Rational Numbers: add, subtract, multiply and divide rational numbers; simplify algebraic expressions and use the distributive property; use deductive reasoning.
- Solving equations: two-step equations; distributive property when combining like-terms and solving equations; equations with variables on both sides; ratio and rates; proportions; missing measures of similar figures; variables in terms of another variable; model distance- rate-time problems; square roots; problems using the Pythagorean Theorem.
- Solving inequalities: solutions of inequalities; graph and write inequalities; inequalities using addition, subtraction, multiplication, division; multi-step inequalities; absolute value equa- tions and inequalities.
- Graphs and Functions: relate graphs to events; evaluate functions; function rules, tables and graphs; write a function rule; equations for direct and inverse variation; direct and in- verse variation; deductive reasoning to describe number patterns.
- Linear equations and their graphs: rates of change from tables and graphs; slope of a linear equation; linear equations in slope-intercept form, standard form, point-slope form; linear graphs; parallel and perpendicular lines.
- Systems of Equations and Inequalities: graphing, substitution, elimination.
- Exponents and Exponential Functions: expressions with zero and negative exponents; Scientific Notation; multiplication properties of exponents; division properties of exponents; exponential functions.
- Polynomials and factoring: polynomials; add, subtract, multiply and divide polynomials; fac- tor a monomial from a polynomial; factor trinomials; factor perfect square trinomials; factor the difference of two squares; factor trinomials by grouping.